HacktoberFest 2019

November 1, 2019 | 10 min. read

Every year for the past few years, I've wanted to participate in Digital Ocean's annual HacktoberFest competition. If you haven't heard of it, DigitalOcean annually hosts a challenge wherein programmers make contributions to open source software during the month of October. All that's required of participants is to make a few pull requests (this year four were required) to public GitHub repositories and have the pull requests be verified to not be spam or counterproductive to maintainers.

Overall, it's a great way to introduce people new to open source or programming in general to the open source community. Although I've been a huge supporter of the open source philosophy and a competent programmer for the better part of a decade now, I had never gotten around to participating before. Nearly ever year for the past three or four years, I would sign up for the challenge and school or life would get in the way, or I would be excited to start but be completely lost on what projects to contribute to. This year, however, was the exception - I finally participated in and completed the HacktoberFest challenge. Here are some of the projects I worked on, along with the work I did.

Cataclysm: Dark Days Ahead

Although I don't play video games nearly as much as I did as a kid, from time to time I do enjoy a good roguelike. Cataclysm: Dark Days Ahead (CDDA) is exactly that - an open-world roguelike set in a zombie apocalypse with a level of complexity only comparable to Dwarf Fortress or NetHack. Along with the usual roguelike features of turn-based combat, tileset/ASCII graphics, randomly-generated content, and permadeath, the game features an crafting system with hundreds of recipes and items.

Two of my pull requests came from fixing bugs within the crafting system. All items and recipes are stored as JSON files within a folder in the repository, and as such bug fixes regarding item requirements or balance tweaks are super easy - compiling and testing the game isn't even necessary to validate the PR, just a JSON formatting check through TravisCI. My first pull request fixed a bug wherein the BB gun item was incorrectly labeled with an item property called "FOULING". Essentially, to balance gunpowder firearms in-game, the developers added the FOULING item flag; all FOULING items have their durability reduced after repeated shots, representing the gunpowder residue wearing out the rifling or barrel of the firearms. A BB gun obviously doesn't use gunpowder, so the bug fix was simple enough - remove the FOULING flag from the BB gun item JSON.

My second pull request was similar. Items can also have item group labels, which simplify random content generation, e.g. instead of listing every item that could possibly spawn in a gun store, just allow items with the group label "gunstore" to spawn in gunstores. If an item does not belong to any item group, though, it doesn't spawn in any location unless it is explicitly and individually added. This is what was happening to the "v6_diesel" item - because V6 diesel engines didn't actually belong to any item group, it never spawned in game. All I did to fix this was add it to the appropriate itemgroups, like "road" and "supplies_mechanics" to allow it to spawn on vehicles along roads and in mechanic shops.


I've been using Haskell as one of my primary side-project languages for about a year now. After discovering it and going through the fantastic Learn You a Haskell For Great Good book to get the basics down, I decided to see how the support was for web development. I came across a framework named Servant, which seemed attractive with its similarities to the Flask framework I had experience with in Python. Both are fairly minimal framework that are more intended for backend API servers, rather than huge, opinionated, batteries-included frameworks like Django in Python or Yesod for Haskell.

As I'd used Servant for a couple months by the time the start of the challenge came around, I felt like it was time to give back to the project. I looked around the issues, but most that I could find were a couple months old or were super advanced type-level Haskell magic that I still haven't gotten around to learning. Some of the issues were related to documentation, so I thought I'd give them a try. The pull request I did manage to get done was simply fixing the broken links in the tutorial documentation.


Everytime I see someone talk about Lisp on the Internet or in a computer science class, they always liken it to a mind-expanding psychedelic experience. Unfortunately, I'd never gotten an excuse to fully dive into Lisp any deeper than the basic introduction to Scheme during a chapter of my programming languages class. When I found Hy, however, I found a great excuse to get into Lisp. Hy is a Lisp dialect that is based on the Python interpreter, similar to Clojure using the JVM. As a programming language nerd, I always find myself wanting to learn a new interesting language, but constantly having to resist sinking time into an obscure technology that might not pay off in any meaningful way. Hy is different in that it's totally interoperable with Python and Python packages, so Hy already benefits from the huge and high-quality Python ecosystem.

My contribution to Hy was the first pull request I made that wasn't based on an issue listed on GitHub. When I was going through the quickstart for Hy, I noticed that the help message in the hy interpreter was identical to that in the vanilla Python interpreter. This was a bug, since the default help message "Type help() for interactive help, or help(object) for help about object." doesn't show the actual help command which used the Lisp-like syntax (help). For the first time in the challenge, I had to actually dive into the code in the repository and check out the guts of the interpreter. Fortunately, greping for the help message took me directly to the culprit, and all that was necessary to fix the bug was to create a new Python object to override the default Python help object. Unfortunately, the (help) function still uses the default PyDoc help system which prints "Welcome to Python 3.7's help utility!. Changing the "Python 3.7" to "Hy (version number)" would require a rewrite of the PyDoc module, which seemed a little unnecessarily intensive. I might come back to change this since it is aesthetically displeasing and communicates an over-reliance on Python tooling, but for now I think it'll serve it's purpose well enough.

Closing Thoughts

As I expected, participating in HacktoberFest was a blast. As much as I love working on my personal side projects, getting the feeling of "Is this a valuable use of my time and skills?" every so often is kind of a downer. With open source projects (at least the popular ones), I can see my own name pop up as a contributor to software that I and thousands of others use and enjoy.

This was also an interesting look at the process of entering the open-source community. Even though there are tons of sites catered to people who want to find a cool project with some low-hanging possible contributions, I didn't find any of them particularly useful. Not only do these sites not really describe the project beyond giving a link to a GitHub repository, I simply didn't feel interested in spending time on any of the projects I saw. I ended up contributing to the projects I did because I was familiar with them and also had a vested interest in their success.

Another thing I found pretty unhelpful was the "good for beginners" tag for issues on GitHub. All the "good for beginners" issues I saw on repositories were weeks to months old and had been fruitlessly picked over by a few hopeful contributors by the time that I looked at them. The actual easy and beginner-friendly issues had just been date within the same day and were still unlabeled and unclaimed. There seems to be a sort of survivorship bias at work here - as contributors infrequently label issues, all the issues that are truly "good for beginners" are fixed by the time that contributors get around to labeling, so the issues that are labeled such are really of medium difficulty or higher. Seeing a pretty tough or involved issue labeled as "good for beginners" is intimidating and certainly made me question my abilities, which further factors into the difficulty of getting people involved as contributors to open source software. So if any open source maintainers are reading, here's my two cents: try to label issues more frequently, or change the labeling to reflect more difficulty than anticipated after a few people have unsuccessfully taken a crack at fixing the issue.

Overall, HacktoberFest 2019 was a great experience. I branched out into some technologies I wouldn't have expected, got some real experience on working with widely-used software, and can now call myself an open-source contributor. I know it's just a stupid T-shirt, but I'm sure once my HacktoberFest shirt comes in the mail I'll wear it proudly.